ES -- James S. Aber What is a Map? A map is a graphic representation or scale model of spatial concepts.
Integrated geography Environmental geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world.
It requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Environmental geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields.
Furthermore, as human relationship with the environment has changed as a result of globalization and technological changea new approach was needed to understand the changing and dynamic relationship. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include: Geomatics Digital Elevation Model DEM Geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography.
Geomatics emerged from the quantitative revolution in geography in the mids. Today, geomatics methods include spatial analysisgeographic information systems GISremote sensingand global positioning systems GPS. Geomatics has led to a revitalization of some geography departments, especially in Northern America where the subject had a declining status during the s.
Regional geography Main article: Regional geography Regional geography is concerned with the description of the unique characteristics of a particular region such as its natural or human elements.
The main aim is to understand, or define the uniqueness, or character of a particular region that consists of natural as well as human elements. Attention is paid also to regionalizationwhich covers the proper techniques of space delimitation into regions.
Related fields Urban planningregional planningand spatial planning: Use the science of geography to assist in determining how to develop or not develop the land to meet particular criteria, such as safety, beauty, economic opportunities, the preservation of the built or natural heritage, and so on.
The planning of towns, cities, and rural areas may be seen as applied geography. In the s, the regional science movement led by Walter Isard arose to provide a more quantitative and analytical base to geographical questions, in contrast to the descriptive tendencies of traditional geography programs.
Regional science comprises the body of knowledge in which the spatial dimension plays a fundamental role, such as regional economicsresource managementlocation theoryurban and regional planningtransport and communicationhuman geographypopulation distribution, landscape ecologyand environmental quality.
While the discipline of geography is normally concerned with the Earththe term can also be informally used to describe the study of other worlds, such as the planets of the Solar System and even beyond.
The study of systems larger than the Earth itself usually forms part of Astronomy or Cosmology. The study of other planets is usually called planetary science.
Alternative terms such as areology the study of Mars have been proposed but are not widely used. Techniques As spatial interrelationships are key to this synoptic science, maps are a key tool. Classical cartography has been joined by a more modern approach to geographical analysis, computer-based geographic information systems GIS.
In their study, geographers use four interrelated approaches: Cartography Cartography studies the representation of the Earth's surface with abstract symbols map making. Although other subdisciplines of geography rely on maps for presenting their analyses, the actual making of maps is abstract enough to be regarded separately.
Cartography has grown from a collection of drafting techniques into an actual science. Cartographers must learn cognitive psychology and ergonomics to understand which symbols convey information about the Earth most effectively, and behavioural psychology to induce the readers of their maps to act on the information.
They must learn geodesy and fairly advanced mathematics to understand how the shape of the Earth affects the distortion of map symbols projected onto a flat surface for viewing.
It can be said, without much controversy, that cartography is the seed from which the larger field of geography grew. Most geographers will cite a childhood fascination with maps as an early sign they would end up in the field.Cartography is the creation and the study of maps and charts - the difference being that maps apply to land and charts are for marine areas (9, p).
It has a long tradition going back at least years; inextricably tied to geography for most of its history, in the 20 th century it has diversified as it becomes more relevant in an. Welcome. The Cartography and Geographic Information Society (CaGIS) is composed of educators, researchers and practitioners involved in the design, creation, use and dissemination of geographic information.
Geography (from Greek: γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of Earth.
The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes (– BC). Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities. Today’s GeoCurrents post offers free customizable maps of Kenya, Ghana, Ethiopia, Belgium,and South initiativeblog.com are based on the main subdivisions of the countries in question: counties in the case of Kenya, regions in that of Ghana, regional states in that of Ethiopia, and provinces in those of Belgium and South initiativeblog.com many of Kenya’s counties are relatively.
small, I have created two. Scholarly online resource evidence and records for use by educators, faculty, family and local historians, genealogists, students and teachers. Geography is divided into two main branches: human geography and physical geography.
There are additional branches in geography such as regional geography, cartography, and integrated geography. This is a main branch in geography and it mainly covers studies of the human race.
This normally involves.