Exercise has been shown to be ineffective when it comes to losing weight — dieting is a better route Photograph: A size 18 and a couple of stone heavier than ideal, she tried in vain for years to shed the extra. Every week she headed to the gym, where she pounded the treadmill like a paratrooper, often three times a week. Most days she took the dog for a brisk, hour-long walk.
Classification[ edit ] Infant mortality rate IMR is the number of deaths per 1, live births of children under one year of age. The rate for a given region is the number of children dying under one year of age, divided by the number of live births during the year, multiplied by 1, Perinatal mortality is late fetal death 22 weeks gestation to birthor death of a newborn up to one week postpartum.
Neonatal death is often attributed to inadequate access to basic medical care, during pregnancy and after delivery. The major contributors to postneonatal death are malnutrition, infectious disease, troubled pregnancy, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and problems with the home environment.
In the United States, a primary determinant of infant mortality risk is infant birth weight with lower birth weights increasing the risk of infant mortality. The determinants of low birth weight include socio-economic, psychological, behavioral and environmental factors.
Congenital malformations[ edit ] Congenital malformations are birth defects that babies are born with, such as cleft lip and palate, Down syndrome, and heart defects. Often times, this occurs when the mother consumes alcohol, but it can also be a cause of genetics or have an unknown cause.
Malnutrition and infectious diseases were the main cause of death in more undeveloped countries. These birth defects mostly had to do with heart and central nervous system. In the 19th century, there was a decrease in the number of infant deaths from heart diseases.
As compared with normal-birth-weight infants, those with low weight at birth are almost 40 times more likely to die in the neonatal period; for infants with very low weight at birth the relative risk of neonatal death is almost times greater.
LBW may be the leading cause of infant deaths, and it is greatly preventable. Although it is preventable, the solutions may not be the easiest but effective programs to help prevent LBW are a combination of health care, education, environment, mental modification and public policy, influencing a culture supporting lifestyle.
Reasons for this include teenage pregnancyincrease in pregnant mothers over the age of thirty-five, increase in the use of in-vitro fertilization which increases the risk of multiple births, obesity and diabetes. Also, women who do not have access to health care are less likely to visit a doctor, therefore increasing their risk of delivering prematurely.
Sudden infant death syndrome Sudden infant death syndrome SIDS is a syndrome where an infant dies in their sleep with no reason behind it. Even with a complete autopsy, no one has been able to figure out what causes this disease. This disease is more common in Western countries.
Scientists have also discovered three causes within a model they created called, the contemporary triple risk model.
This model states that three conditions such as the mother smoking while pregnant, the age of the infant, and stress referring to conditions such as overheating, prone sleeping, co-sleeping, and head covering. Malnutrition in children Malnutrition or undernutrition is defined as inadequate intake of nourishment, such as proteins and vitamins, which adversely affects the growth, energy and development of people all over the world.
It is estimated that about 3. Adverse effects of malnutrition[ edit ] Children suffering from malnutrition face adverse physical effects such as stunting, wasting, or being overweight.
In Africa the number of stunted children has risen, while Asia holds the most children under 5 suffering from wasting.Published: Mon, 5 Dec The following describes a case study scenario in which I am an experienced, protective services worker about to do the first home visit with a new family.
Upon a social service department receiving the initial referral a decision will be made by the manager whether to act upon the information received.
In the case of Samantha and her children the referral offers enough information to meet the criteria for a social worker to undertake an Initial. This website contains some of the completed units of my HNC level 4 qualification in Health and Social Care.
Some of the units within this website are a level 5 and many of the questions and answers will also be relevant to QCF qualifications or ATHE Level 4 Extended Diploma in Management for Health and Social Care and to the first 2 years of a BA or BSc in Health and Social Care.
Band 9 Sample answers are useful as study guides – especially for IELTS essay band 9. Having access to previously completed work that you can have confidence in will show you what you are missing! Click here for a full list of Band 9 sample essays. The primary NIH organization for research on Children's Health is the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Other Languages Find health information in languages other than English on Children's Health.
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