Anne Cameron, a very gifted white Canadian author, writes several first person accounts of the lives of Native Canadian women.
In articulating these debates the paper analyzes scholarly views of most African and Western-centric feminist critiques. The debate is centered on pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial patterns of gender relations.
The paper also suggests areas of further research and it relies mainly on inter-disciplinary works on gender and status.
Both theoretically and in practical sense, it is my view that a gender lens alters the view of decision-making arenas. I discuss these arenas in terms of the domestic sphere, the economic sector and political office, and 2the significance of a politics of transformation.
It is true that as women are included in decision-making at all levels, there is the expectation of significant change in the organization of society, resources available to the disadvantaged, and women's confidence in their own contributions.
Challenging imperialist views about the victimization of traditional third- world women, many anthropologists and historians are increasingly stressing women's powers during this period. Mama's study comments on the paucity of research into women's roles and gender relations during the precolonial period, going on to observe that many writers have dwelt on mythological aspects.
Recent seminal and anthropological and historical works, however, suggest significant shifts. In my opinion, Snyder tends to deal with one strand in the research, and yet the range of writings on this period, writings that embrace history, anthropology and interdisciplinary research, indicate that theorists have advanced strikingly different conclusions.
Two broadly diverging arguments emerge in studies produced since the early s on women in pre-colonial Africa. On one level, historical work, as exemplified in studies like Sandra GreenBarbara Cooper Dealing with differences and connections between gender relations during the colonial and pre-colonial period, these works offer evidence of the value of the gender concept, rather than jettison it.
In my view, they are also, however, strongly concerned with the agency of African women during the pre-colonial period. For example, Greene draws on an array of oral and archival sources to consider how women, between the 17th and 20th centuriesnegotiated authority was undermined with the colonial practice of buttressing chiefs and male elders.
In contrast to scholarship foregrounding gender hierarchies during the pre-colonial period are studies that both contest that gender was a significant social category and that affirm women's spiritual and secular authorities, a situation that changed with colonialism.
Ifi Amadiumetaking this approach to an extreme, has established an influential paradigm for this thesis, and her prolific output from the eighties to the present day draws on a range of evidence. A recent work which draws similar conclusions in interpreting pre-colonial African women is by Oyeronke Oyewumi Her study is anchored in an ambitious discussion of Western philosophical, conceptual and linguistic traditions and agues that patterns of defining human bodies in social and cultural terms is not a feature of the African society.
Although Oyewumi stresses that African society was strongly hierarchical, she insists that gender, a concept foreign to the pre-colonial world-view, did not play any meaningful role in determining power relations and subjectivity.
Thus her argument is grounded in a lengthy linguistic and philosophical analysis of power, subjectivity and relations between men and women in pre-colonial Africa, acknowledging how complicatedly language and social relations reflect gender hierarchies, even when those hierarchies are very different from the patterns manifested in other extensively theorized contexts.
Indeed, the mythic figure of the powerful African matriarch, prominent in early studies such as Denise Paulme has enjoyed enormous sway as a symbolic construct. The reliance on this construct is an alarming indication of the impact of Western discursive inventions of African women, where anthropological units of analysis have been used to demonstrate or inscribe the essentialized difference of African from Western Societies.
For my part, arguments offered by Oyewumi and Amadiumi, although open to contestation, create a suggestive conceptual space for reassessing the apparently universal concepts that have too long been central to influential feminist research.
I therefore would like to believe that while the powers that Amadiumi invests in African women may not entirely reflect women's pre-colonial positions, and while the absence of gender as a linguistic term does not necessarily disprove the existence of power relations between men and women, Amadiume and Oyewumi's unsettling of many concepts and hypotheses has helped generate new research into pre-colonial African women, and created a receptive context for further work in the field.
This innovative work is evidenced in Heike Becker's recent work on Namibia Becker takes as her central thesis the idea that women in the past had a significant share in political power, ritual leadership, and the transmission of oral history and traditions.
They were also able to negotiate significant forms and degrees of power in the sexual and economic lives. Becker's ideas resonate with the insights of Oyewumi and others who have critiqued the universality of cultural and linguistic expressions of gender hierarchies, although they enlist more rigorous analysis and historical evidence.
These ideas are also manifested in Sylvia Tamale's research on Ugandan women's contemporary participation. Challenging the assumptions of African male scholars and Euro-centric commentators who have reduced women to victims, I believe, Tamale identifies a space for African feminist scholarship which is both cognisant of women's agency during the pre-colonial period and marked by historical and critical insight.
Economics in Colonial Patriarchy Colonial policies have had far -reaching consequences on women's present positions; consequences which the male biases in post-colonial policy-making have done little to correct.
Much research on education demonstrates that the period immediately after decolonization often witnessed dwindling numbers of girls in schools. It is my opinion that explaining these patterns only with reference to gender blindness of the post-colonial state does not address the long term impact of colonial policy in structurally entrenching gendered divisions of labor, the demonstration of women and deep-seated stereotypes of women statuses and roles.
It is true that with growth of the mining and agricultural industries under colonialism, men were rapidly recruited to work in mines and on farms, a practice that went hand in hand with women's systematic exclusion from waged labor.
In most cases, colonial policy entrenched women's positions in pre-capitalist economies instituting a cult of domesticity entirely at odds with women's actual roles. This led to their employment in the informal sector as, for example, traders, petty commodity producers, sex workers or manufacturers and retailers of food and liquor.
As much research on this period shows, all of these activities, as well as the migration of women, were strictly policed by different colonial administrations.
Colonial definitions of women's urban work as peripheral and unlawful, together with stereotypes surrounding their presence in towns, continue in the post-colonial period. Dennis in Afsar, She shows how the military government of the eighties blamed women traders for economic crises, with the state's modernizing and disciplining missions instituting a formidable array of mechanisms against working women in cities.
Dealing with Zimbabwe, Jacobs and Howard show how the government, immediately after independence, instituted policies of urban population control targeting women in ruthless round-ups Throughout Africathe low status, demonizing and scapegoating of women's urban economic activity continues to affect their battles-often to meet subsistence levels-in the informal sectors.Mimum Educational Qualifications: The candidate must hold a degree of any of Universities incorporated by an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other educational institutions established by an Act of Parliament or declared to be deemed as a University Under Section-3 of the University Grants Commission Act, , or possess an equivalent qualification.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec The theory of ‘Gender Performance’ or ‘Gender Performativity’ was first coined in Judith Butler’s book titled Gender Trouble. Posted by David Tucker to. Writing Tips; When you almost sank into despair and nearly lost all your hope and optimism you finally found this list of the top persuasive essay topics.
Discursive Essay A discursive essay is an article that talks about a topic that is controversial in nature. This type of essay intends to present the issues both sides of the argument.
There was a pretty massive shift in the s and s when northern Democrats starting supporting the civil rights movement (among other things).
I’ve listed 70 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to help get you started. I’ve separated the topics into five categories—legal, moral, social, media, and family.