EPA Advertisement The following essay is reprinted with permission from The Conversationan online publication covering the latest research. The entire ocean floor has now been mapped to a maximum resolution of around 5km, which means we can see most features larger than 5km across in those maps.
Recent studies suggest that the deep ocean bottom supports habitats as diverse as any community on land or in shallow water.
The discovery that the deep sea may be every bit as rich as a tropical rainforest comes at a time when land use is at a premium.
In the 21st Century, we have to decide what to do with the vast amount of waste that a growing population — projected to double from five billion to 10 billion in the next century — will produce.
The motivation for banning ocean dumping gained momentum when contaminated wastes from sewage-derived microorganisms were discovered at public beaches, shellfish beds were contaminated with toxic metals, and fish were infected by lesion-causing parasites.
Coastal areas continually impacted by nutrients in waste products primarily nitrogen that run off the land eventually suffer from increases in toxic algal blooms and decreased oxygen levels, both of which can kill fish populations. Yet, most natural and artificial wastes — such as sewage sludge, mining tailings, fly ash from power stations, dredged spoils from harbors and estuaries, dangerous synthetic organic compounds and packaged goods — make their way to the sea floor over time.
Many said it could not be done. Sludge, which at one time was mostly burned or ocean dumped, is now viewed as a valuable resource to be recycled, reused, even sold. An investigation into alternatives by the coalition concluded that nationwide, sewage sludge is treated as a resource, not a waste.
The Clean Sludge Coalition has since become a vocal advocate of beneficially reusing sludge, to insure that sludge taken out of the ocean would not turn into a pollution problem on land. They have approved a permit for a New York heating oil company to dump contaminated sludge in the ocean a few miles off Sandy Hook.
But New York has had plenty of time — and has had the money sitting unused — to develop safe alternatives to using the ocean as a garbage dump. New Jersey has done its part.
The agreement to end ocean dumping called for the area to be capped and sealed with clean material. Instead, some of it will make its way into currents and could end up in the waters off Jersey Shore beaches.
As the familiar fight against ocean dumping rages on, two legislators are taking another step to put a legal stop to it. The ocean floor dump site was formerly known as the Mud Dump.
The suit, brought to U. District Court by the New York-based company U. Gypsum win in July, legislators and Sandy Hook-based environmental group Clean Ocean Action won part of the battle because the company opted to dump on land rather than at sea.
After negotiating with Pallone, Gypsum sent itstons of contaminated waste to cap a golf course in Bayonne rather than the HARS. Since then, local public hearings on the subject have taken place, and Pallone and Clean Ocean Action officials have continued the fight to set the stricter standard in stone.
The bill establishes a state-imposed, enforceable PCB standard of parts per billion ppb in worm tissue for dredged material transported in state waters for disposal at ocean remediation sites. Assemblyman Steve Corodemus R was responsible for continuing the momentum of action on the bill, and the prime sponsor Assemblyman Reed Gusciora D gave the final push for a vote on the bill today.
The bill is now ready for Governor James McGreevey to sign.
The federal standard establishing the value was called into question in a lawsuit brought by a dredging company who had been denied a permit to dredge and dump material exceeding the federal value at HARS.
Following this court decision, EPA initiated a formal rulemaking process in October to properly establish ppb as a final federal PCB criterion for ocean dumping.
Levels of silver appeared to be on the increase 50 nautical miles south of the dumpsite, as did the densities of sediment-dwelling organisms. While deep-sea dumping has been banned, there are many other ways that waste makes its way into water bodies. Some argue in favor of deep-ocean dumping, because the material is diluted as it sinks, and reamins stable on the sea floor.
The present body of research, however, suggests that dilution does not completely abate the effects of dumping, nor does the waste sit still once it gets to the bottom.
Marcia Collie and Julie Russo. The End of Sewage Sludge Dumping. No more muck for the ocean. Battle against ocean dumping intensifies. Ocean dumping legislation in the legislative works.Key Concepts Ch. The Ocean Floor After reading and studying Ch. 13, you should be able to.
Concept 1: Explore the oceans and features of our "Blue Planet," including the techniques used to learn more about the ocean floor.
Concept 2: Divide the ocean floor into three topographic units and describe the features associated with both passive . a quiz on the ocean floor that includes vocabulary and matching. Remote sensing devices used to study the ocean floor are: magnetometers, echo sounders, and microwave radar instruments At sea-floor vents, bacteria produce energy from hydrogen sulfide in .
Geology Chpt 2 essay questions. STUDY. Ages of ocean-floor basalts lying within a zone of normal or reversed polarity are dated by the ages of the fossils found in the sediments which directly overlie the basaltic crust.
These fossils have already been incorporated within a biostratigraphic zone. 7. How are hot spots used for determining. The Creation of the Ocean Floor Anitreas Weeks SCI/ January 26, Cynthia Collin-Clausen The Creation of the Ocean Floor When most individuals think about the ocean they visualize water, and the creatures of the sea.
In Atlantic Ocean: Relief of the ocean floor The outstanding feature of the Atlantic floor is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, an immense median mountain range extending throughout the length of the Atlantic, claiming the centre third of the ocean bed, and reaching roughly 1, miles (1, km) in breadth.