Archaeologists have found that three major indigenous cultures lived in this territory, and reached their developmental peak before the first European contact. Influence of Teotihuacan in northern Mexico peaked around AD and declined over the 8th to 10th centuries. When Europeans arrived in the Texas region, there were several races of Native peoples divided into many smaller tribes. At least one tribe of Coahuiltecans, the Aranama, lived in southern Texas.
Archaeologists have found that three major indigenous cultures lived in this territory, and reached their developmental peak before the first European contact. Influence of Teotihuacan in northern Mexico peaked around AD and declined over the 8th to 10th centuries.
When Europeans arrived in the Texas region, there were several races of Native peoples divided into many smaller tribes. At least one tribe of Coahuiltecans, the Aranama, lived in southern Texas. This entire culture group, primarily centered in northeastern Mexico, is now extinct. It is difficult to say who lived in the northwestern region of the state originally.
By the time the region came to be explored, it belonged to the fairly well-known Comanche, another Uto-Aztecan people who had transitioned into a powerful horse culture, but it is believed that they came later and did not live there during the 16th century.
It may have been claimed by several different peoples, including Uto-Aztecans, Athabaskans, or even Dhegihan Siouans. No culture was dominant in the present-day Texas region, and many peoples inhabited the area. When the Spanish briefly managed to conquer the Louisiana colony, they decided to switch tactics and attempt being exceedingly friendly to the Indians, which they continued even after the French took back the colony.
After the Louisiana Purchase, the United States inherited this odd circumstance. Warlike tribes made life difficult and dangerous for Europeans through their attacks and resistance to the newcomers. Prior treaties with the Spanish forbade either side from militarizing its native population in any potential conflict between the two nations.
It seems most likely that these were false-flag attacks meant to start a cascading effect to force the natives under Caddoan influence into armed conflict without breaking any treaties—preferably on the side of the Spanish.
While no proof was found as to who the culprit was, those in charge of Texas at the time attempted multiple times to publicly blame and punish the Caddoans for the incidents with the U. Furthermore, the Caddoans never turned to violence because of it, excepting cases of self-defense.
Fearing retribution of other native peoples, Indian Agents all over the eastern U. Following the Texas Revolution, the Texans chose to make peace with their Native peoples, but did not honor former land claims or agreements.
This began the movement of Native populations north into what would become Indian Territory—modern day Oklahoma. They went about with a firebrand, setting fire to the plains and timber so as to drive off the mosquitos, and also to get lizards and similar things which they eat, to come out of the soil.
In the same manner they kill deer, encircling them with fires, and they do it also to deprive the animals of pasture, compelling them to go for food where the Indians want. Two kinds of people travel around these plains with the cows; one is called Querechos and the others Teyas ; they are very well built, and painted, and are enemies of each other.
They have no other settlement or location than comes from traveling around with the cows.
They kill all of these they wish, and tan the hides, with which they clothe themselves and make their tents, and they eat the flesh, sometimes even raw, and they also even drink the blood when thirsty.
The tents they make are like field tents, and they set them up over some poles they have made for this purpose, which come together and are tied at the top, and when they go from one place to another they carry them on some dogs they have, of which they have many, and they load them with the tents and poles and other things, for the country is so level, as I said, that they can make use of these, because they carry the poles dragging along on the ground.
The sun is what they worship most. Approximate state area highlighted, northern areas indefinite. In Spanish authorities, concerned that France posed competitive threat, constructed several missions in East Texas. By the end of the 18th century only a few nomadic tribes had not converted to Christianity.
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