SMT emerged within the principles-and-parameters framework of generative grammar and involves efficient computation that requires the restriction of computational resources as well as minimization of computations. The chapter suggests that Merge constitutes the sole computational operation in narrow syntax and proposes a No Tampering Condition NTC to prevent Merge from making internal changes to the syntactic objects SOs to which it applies. It first reviews some recent and ongoing work in the general framework of the so-called Minimalist Program before turning to the theory of phases, the Inclusiveness Condition, and the Phase Impenetrability Condition. It also discusses two forms of Merge, external merge and internal merge, the latter of which is driven by edge features of lexical items.
You cannot swing the lines around, or fling strong-sounding words, or scatter soft ones, to no purpose. Poems have shorter lines than paragraphs, and they are surrounded by white space. The place where a poet chooses to end one line and begin another is called a line break.
Thus, the ends of lines are called line breaks. The space between stanzas is known as a stanza break. Poetry is the only genre in which form matters as much as content.
Beginning writers of free verse poetry are often confounded by line breaks and how to handle them. More rule-bound poetry offers writers greater certainty about where each line should end: Free verse is more free form, and therefore, offers no such formulaic answers.
Yet, line breaks and stanza breaks are of critical importance to a poem. Line breaks set the rhythm of a poem and create the white space and shape of the poem.
These line breaks and white space help the reader know how to read a poem out loud or silently. This infinitesimal pause indicated by a line break honors the rhythm and emphasis placed there by the poet. Furthermore, most poets end their lines on strong words: Slicing a line at a weak word an article, conjunction, or preposition forces the reader to pause at an insignificant moment in the poem, rather than at a point of meaning.
Line and stanza breaks are ultimately up to the poet, so how do you choose which words belong together on a line?
How do your mind, eyes, ears, and lungs help you choose? First, remember that poetry is meant to be spoken. Then think of the emphasis you want to give your words. Explore breaking the line at different places, whisper reading to yourself, to see which line break gives your poem the rhythm and meaning you most desire.
Try to draft your free verse poems in lines. You will revise later by shortening, lengthening, and moving lines, but it is wonderful to visualize your draft as a poem, rather than as prose, from the very start.
If that is too challenging for now, it is fine to write your poem first as prose, and then go back into the draft and divide it into lines, and then revise and polish based on those breaks. As you work on line breaks, stanzas, and punctuation, consider the following: Do pay close attention to line breaks and white space.
Notice how a poet makes decisions.
Do the repeating lines all look alike? Does one word or one line stand all by itself? Do lines go down the page in a certain way? Why do you think the poet did this? Poetry is written to be spoken.
Break lines to emphasize breaths, pauses, or silences. Break on nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Try to draft in lines. Experiment with the size, shape, and length of lines and stanzas.Ross’s (, ) first Island constraints to the Barriers work (Chomsky ) to Chomsky’s recent Strong Minimalist Thesis (, a).
The critical claims are about what does not happen, for which no direct empirical evidence can arise. Hence no empirical . Strong Minimalist Thesis is, as Boeckx (To appear) puts it, “a challenge to the linguistic community: Can it be shown that the computational system at the core of [the faculty of language] is optimally or perfectly designed to meet.
The strong minimalist thesis (Chomsky ) (1) Language is an optimal solution to legibility conditions We start with (1) and then we search for apparent imperfections—things that do not seem. Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products.
The Canadian National Vimy Memorial. At the end of the First World War, an Imperial War Graves Commission committee (now the Commonwealth War Graves Commission) awarded Canada eight battle sites – three in France and five in Belgium – on which to construct initiativeblog.com , the newly established Canadian Battlefields Memorial Commission organized a competition for an identical .
Parameters as Third Factor Timing Optionality Miki Obata1, Marlyse Baptista2 and Samuel Epstein2 Mie University1 and University of Michigan, Ann Arbor2 1.
Framing the Issues (= the strong minimalist thesis) requires all the operations to apply. However, the order in which they apply is not specified.