Votaire essay on tolerance

Born Francois-Marie Arouet French philosopher, essayist, dramatist, historian, poet, critic, and autobiographer. The following entry provides an overview of Voltaire's life and works.

Votaire essay on tolerance

On the Interpretation of the Old Testament.

Votaire essay on tolerance

We quickly forget the long list of the dead who have perished in our battles. It is the inevitable fate of war; those who die by the sword might themselves have inflicted death on their enemies, and did not die without the means of defending themselves. When the risk and the advantage are equal astonishment ceases, and even pity is enfeebled.

But when an innocent father is given into the hands of error, of passion, or of fanaticism; when the accused has no defence but his virtue; when those who dispose of his life run no risk but that of making a mistake; when they can slay with impunity by a legal decree—then the voice of the Edition: In this strange incident we have to deal with religion, suicide, and parricide.

The question was, Whether a father and mother had strangled their son to please God, a brother had strangled his brother, and a friend had strangled his friend; or whether the judges had incurred the reproach of Votaire essay on tolerance on the wheel an innocent father, or of sparing a guilty mother, brother, and friend.

Jean Calas, a man of sixty-eight years, had been engaged in commerce at Toulouse for more than forty years, and was recognised by all who knew him as a good father.

He was a Protestant, as were also his wife and family, except one son, who had abjured the heresy, and was in receipt of a small allowance from his father. He seemed to be so far removed from the absurd fanaticism that breaks the bonds of society that he had approved the conversion of his son [Louis Calas], and had had in his service for thirty years a zealous Catholic woman, who had reared all his children.

One of the sons of Jean Calas, named Marc Antoine, was a man of letters. He was regarded as of a restless, sombre, and violent character. This young man, failing to enter the commercial world, for which he was unfitted, or the legal world, because he could not obtain the necessary certificate that he was a Catholic, determined to end his life, and informed a friend of his intention.

Having one day lost his money in gambling, he determined to carry out his plan on that very day. A personal friend and friend of the family, named Lavaisse, a young man of nineteen, well known for his candid and kindly ways, the son of a distinguished lawyer at Toulouse, had come from Bordeaux on the previous day, October 12, He happened to sup with the Calas family.

The father, mother, Marc Antoine, the elder son, and Pierre, the second son, were present. After supper they withdrew to a small room. Marc Antoine disappeared, and when young Lavaisse was ready to go, and he and Pierre Calas had gone down-stairs, they found, near the shop below, Marc Antoine in his shirt, hanging from a door, his coat folded under the counter.

His shirt was unruffled, his hair was neatly combed, and he had no wound or mark on the body. We will omit the details which were given in court, and the grief and despair of his parents; their cries were heard by the neighbours. Lavaisse and Pierre, beside themselves, ran for surgeons and the police.

While they were doing this, and the father and mother sobbed and wept, the people of Toulouse gathered round the house. They are superstitious and impulsive people; they regard as monsters their brothers who do not share their religion.

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This city still celebrates every year, by a procession and fireworks, the day on which it massacred four thousand heretical citizens two hundred years ago. Six decrees of the Council have been passed in vain for the suppression of this odious festival; the people of Toulouse celebrate it still like a floral festival.

The cry was soon repeated on all sides; some adding that the deceased was to have abjured Protestantism on the following day, and that the family and young Lavaisse had strangled him out of hatred of the Catholic religion. In a moment all doubt had disappeared. The whole town was persuaded that it is a point of religion with the Protestants for a father and mother to kill their children when they wish to change their faith.

The agitation could not end here. It was imagined that the Protestants of Languedoc had held a meeting the night before; that they had, by a majority of votes, chosen an executioner for the sect; that the choice had fallen on young Lavaisse; and that, in the space of twenty-four hours, the young man had received the news of his appointment, Edition: The captain of Toulouse, David, excited by these rumours and wishing to give effect to them by a prompt execution, took a step which is against the laws and regulations.

He put the Calas family, the Catholic servant, and Lavaisse in irons. A report not less vicious than his procedure was published. He even went further. Marc Antoine Calas had died a Calvinist; and, if he had taken his own life, his body was supposed to be dragged on a hurdle.

Instead of this, he was buried with great pomp in the church of St. Stephen, although the priest protested against this profanation. There are in Languedoc four confraternities of penitents—the white, the blue, the grey, and the black.

“Of Universal Tolerance” by Voltaire Essay Sample

Their members wear a long hood, with a cloth mask, pierced with two holes for the eyes.Cheap home work writers site Voltaire was visited guidelines writing comparison contrast essay by Francesco Algarotti. custom essays writing services online the history of the roman senate.

esl bibliography ghostwriter sites us. Essays and criticism on Voltaire - Voltaire. Voltaire - Essay. and he and his brother parted ways over the issue of religious tolerance.

He was educated by the Jesuits at the Collège. This collection of essays by Voltaire contains a long essay on the Jean Calas case, several shorter essays on religious topics, and his EXTREME TOLERANCE OF THE JEWS VOLTAIRE, TOLERATION AND OTHER ESSAYS () INTRODUCTION.

The Treatise on Tolerance on the Occasion of the Death of Jean Calas from the Judgment Rendered in Toulouse (Pieces Originales Concernant la Mort des Sieurs Calas det le Jugement rendu a Toulouse) is a work by French philosopher Voltaire, published in , in which he calls for tolerance between religions, and targets religious .

This collection of essays by Voltaire contains a long essay on the Jean Calas case, several shorter essays on religious topics, and his EXTREME TOLERANCE OF THE JEWS VOLTAIRE, TOLERATION AND OTHER ESSAYS () INTRODUCTION. Voltaire's letter first issued in London in an English translation, because the material was considered too politically dangerous for the work to appear in France.

Toleration and Other Essays - Online Library of Liberty